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  • Women in Covid: UBI and Capabilities

    By Nishtha Gupta, a 4th Year, B.A., LL.B.(Hons.) student at NALSAR, Hyderabad The idea of distributive justice is premised upon the cornerstone of ‘equality’, but time and again academicians, as well as policymakers, have failed to provide a comprehensive idea of what kind of equality ensures distributive justice. Despite wide criticism of the Rawlsian theory of justice as an obsession with material resources, attempts by states to reduce inequality and alleviate poverty usually involve a redistribution of wealth and resources without much focus on developing the capabilities of people. This paper seeks to show that these policies rest on the false premise which equates poverty with wealth and uses a capabilities approach framework to analyse how the response of the Indian government to the recent Corona pandemic affects different classes of the population unequally, despite there not being a significant difference in their financial situation. It will be argued that the policies that would be better responded were their implementation of Universal Basic Income (UBI) for all in India. An analytical approach specifically from the feminist viewpoint would be the pivot with UBI as a suggestive remedy. Defining Poverty Distributive justice is premised on two prominent questions- what to distribute and how to distribute it? The visceral response to the first question was the distribution of wealth as, theorists from Aristotle to Rawls introduced us to theories that provide for means of distributing wealth among the people. What remained dialectal was, how could this be done in a way that would quench the needs and satisfy all its beneficiaries. In response, and despite its flaws, Vilfred Pareto’s proposed theory of ‘make at least one person better off’, became the standard espoused by policymakers and courts alike. By the middle of the last century, however, discrepancies between the theory and the practical situation began to emerge prominently. Was the distribution of wealth enough to ensure distributive justice? The feminist movement and the civil rights activism in the United States produced a new concept known as ‘equality of opportunity’ while in the Soviet Union and China, the communist states were experimenting with a new brand of equality – ‘the equality of outcome’. The second question was also left open as the latest research by Kenneth Arrow and Amartya Sen showed its impracticality in the real world. Following the development of the impossibility theorem and the liberal paradox, social choice theory in economics hit a dead end. The response to the ‘what’ question turned tides when answered differently by Amartya Sen in his celebrated lecture ‘Equality of what?” He came up with the theory of capabilities where poverty is measured by the choice of capabilities that individuals have reason to value. Poverty according to this approach has been measured as the deprivation of capabilities. Nussbaum furthered this approach by listing capabilities which the state ought to provide to its people, to ensure dignified living to its citizens. Pandemic and Women The first course of treatment for any pandemic, Covid not being the exception, is house quarantine and social distancing. And this is exactly how the Indian government responded to the first and second wave. What eluded most eyes was, however, something known as the shadow pandemic. With the onset of the pandemic, in a culture where men staying at home and contributing to housework is considered undignified, now they were being forced to restrict themselves to confined familial spaces. This gradually morphed into a phenomenon that saw an increase in violence, especially domestic violence inflicted against women and girls. The UN Chronicle and campaign launched during the period stressed on the lack of resources available with women to redress their complaints and a capacity saturation of the helplines and response teams. It is argued that a simple measure like the Universal Basic Income, could have ameliorated the conditions of women affected by the pandemic and trellised their vulnerability. Theoretical underpinnings to UBI UBI, as propounded by Parjis and Vanderborought, refers to an uninterrupted flow of cash to all the citizens in a country irrespective of the employment and social conditions they are living in. In their words A basic income … is an income paid by the government to each full member of society … is meant to convey the idea that, owing to its unconditional nature, we here have something on which a person can safely count, a material foundation on which a life can firmly rest, and to which any other income, whether in cash or in kind, can legitimately be added.[1] The concept proposed by Parjis is that people should have real freedom in addition to the formal freedom guarantee through property rights and security rights. Positing that formal freedoms do not result in the achievement of capabilities, Parjis argues for real freedoms, opportunities, beckoning people to achieve their capabilities. Hayek’s commitment to republican freedom had also demonstrated an inclination towards the idea of basic income. In his words “There is difference between society that accepts duty of providing minimum level of welfare… one which seeks to determine the ‘just’ position and allocates to each what it thinks he deserves.” It is argued for a universal income for the reason that the alternative of means-tested distribution of goods and cash is not efficient a fair in the state. The welfare state does not have the means to assess the people who are justified in receiving the UBI. The author has justified through the capabilities approach that the poor cannot be identified through these means. As per a study in Kenya, the presence of UBI increases the psychological being of individuals. It gives them more opportunities to fulfil their aspirations and capabilities. The budget report also calculated the economic feasibility of UBI. The calculations have been based on the de facto poverty and GDP in the country and the figures are between 4.2-4.9 per cent of GDP in the initial phases. The budget reflected that the per cent would reduce depending on the decrease in the number of poor below the poverty line. with these foundations, it would now be beneficial to assess the impact UBI could have on women and their capabilities. Redressing the Effects Annals prove that there is a clear connection between the violence women faced at home and their economic condition in social life. Domestic violence and economic dependence are directly proportional.[2] Marriage gives men power over the wife. It gives him the power to control her social life, property and social capital. Coker posits an interconnectedness between violence and material resources. In her words Inadequate material resources increase the batterers’ access to women who do try to separate. [T]hose women who are economically vulnerable have an increased vulnerability to violence. So you see this kind of interactive effect.[3] A simple addition of income to the household, in the form of UBI, would allow women to utilise resources for personal development, giving them a sense of freedom and reduced dependence on the males of the house. Given that UBI is individuated, the money would go into her personal account, preventing abuse or access by others. It is only axiomatic that the minimal income gives a psychological satisfaction, at two levels- one to the woman, giving her a voice and means to her ends, and two to the male who now is aware of her independent source of income. It is pertinent that this is not only a boon for houses with instances of domestic abuse. The pandemic evidenced an increase in housework and burden on the women, with alterations in the living conditions of the family. Killewald concluded that unemployment and financial dependence increases the share of housework distribution[4]. Reilley inferred that higher-earning women were more likely to feel independent along with nominally being responsible for the housework where concomitantly unemployed women did not have choices available to reduce their household burden.[5] It would then appear instinctive that provisioning an amount for each individual would assuage, if not entirely resolve, the issue of dependence. What would come as an instant criticism is the amount of money, the government will be able to dedicate to this scheme. While the numbers have been accounted for in the economic survey mentioned earlier, the question is not just about the amount, rather the incentive and means to enable a woman to realise her capabilities, as Sen and Parjis envisioned. The UBI would ensure that the citizens have money to save for the basic supplies and procuring necessities. They would have the income resource to convert their ability into functioning. Capabilities cannot be fulfilled without the presence of a constant income. The UBI supplemented by other capability development approaches appears to be the most efficient solution to tackle the impact of an epidemic like corona on the poor. India prides itself as being a welfare state, and implementation of unique, welfare policies like the UBI should be something it should not shy away from. Our women have already borne much suffering, it is time we repay, redress, and remedy these. References [1] Parijs & Vanderborght, Basic income. A radical proposal for a free society and a sane economy (1st edn, Harvard University Press 2017). [2] Julie Matthaei, An Economic History of Women in America (Harvester Press, 1982). [3] Donna Coker, ‘Addressing Domestic Violence Through a Strategy of Economic Rights’ [2003] 24 WOMEN’S RTS. L. REP. 187, 188. [4] Gough M, Killewald A, ‘Unemployment in families: the case of housework’ [2011] J Marriage Fam 73 1085. [5] O’Reilly J, Nazio T, Roche JM, ‘Compromising conventions: attitudes of dissonance and indifference towards full-time maternal employment in Denmark, Spain, Poland and the UK’ [2014] Work Employ Soc 28 168. (Disclaimer- The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Child Rights Centre.)

  • Legal Rights of Orphan Children in India

    By Pritha Lahiri* & Ayush Kumar** “…. We are guilty of many errors and many faults, but our worst crime is abandoning the children, neglecting the fountain of life. Many of the things we need can wait. The child cannot. Right now, is the time his bones are being formed, his blood is being made, and his senses are being developed. To him we cannot answer ‘Tomorrow,’ his name is today.” - Gabriela Mistral Introduction An orphan is someone who has lost his/ her parents. There are other definitions of orphans such as paternal orphans (a child who has lost his father), maternal orphans (a child who has lost his mother) or double orphans (a child who has lost both the parents). However, the Indian Legislation makes no such distinction. As per Section 2(k) in The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Rules, 2007 defines an Orphan as “a child who is without parents or willing and capable legal or natural guardian”. In India, there is no specific legislation that talks about the rights of an orphan. There are no rules and regulations which explicitly mention their welfare. As per a 2005-06 record available, there are more than 20mn orphans in India, which is almost equal to 4% of the country's total population. This is a considerable number. Furthermore, during the Covid-19 pandemic, the situation got aggravated. So much so that, during April-May 2021, 577 children lost their parents. This data is very problematic when looked at for the last one year. Considering the current plight of the orphans in India, in this article, we have tried to understand the legal rights of orphans in India, which are encapsulated in the existing legislation governing their rights. The article further discusses how law and policy revolving around this special population of children must evolve in order to ensure that their well-being is ensured. Existing Legal Rights of Orphans Usually, when we talk of an orphan, we mean a child who has been either abandoned deliberately by their parents or a child who has lost his/ her parents in an accident or mishap. As per the United Nations Conventions on Rights of the Child (UNCRC), a child is anyone who is below the age of 18 years or unless under the law applicable to the child, the majority is attained earlier. Every child has the right to family care. This provision is found in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 (“CRC”), the UN Guidelines for Alternative Care 2009, the Indian Constitution and the jurisprudence of the Indian Supreme Court on child rights. There are certain rights that a child possesses. These are as follows: 1. The Right to Identity Children have the right to a legally recognised name as well as a nationality (to belong to a country). They must also have the right to a public record that serves as their identity. This record guarantees both national support and access to social services. 2. The Right to Health The right to health covers medical care, nutrition, protection from bad habits such as drugs, etc., and safe working environments, with articles 23 and 24 of The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), detailing access to special care and support for children with special needs, as well as quality health care (including drinking water, nutrition, and a safe environment). 3. The Right to be protected from exploitation Children should not be forced to labour in hazardous or demanding settings. Children can only volunteer to work on tasks that do not jeopardise their health, education, or playtime. Sexual exploitation, which is another form of exploitation, is also forbidden as an activity that exploits people. Article 23 of the Indian Constitution protects individuals from exploitation and guarantees human dignity. Survivors of abuse, neglect, and exploitation require specific assistance in order to recover and reintegrate into society. Even though it is under the jurisdiction of the court system, children cannot be punished brutally. Death or life sentences, as well as penalties involving adult inmates, are not allowed. 4. The Right to an Opinion The Children have the right to express themselves without fear of being judged or ridiculed. In circumstances where adults are actively making decisions on behalf of children, the latter have the right to have their thoughts heard. While children's opinions are not always based on facts, they are nevertheless a valuable source of information for parents and should be considered. This, however, is dependent on the child's maturity and age. Children have the right to free expression as long as their thoughts and knowledge do not damage others. 5. The Child’s Right to a Family “Every child has a right to love and be loved and to grow up in an atmosphere of love and affection and of moral and material security and this is possible only if the child is brought up in a family.” The importance of alternative care based on family and community is recognised in child rights jurisprudence. This right is also recognised at the International Level. Article 4 of the UN Guidelines for Alternative Care of Children, 2009 states that “Every child and young person deserves to grow up in a nurturing, protecting, and caring environment that encourages them to reach their best potential.” Further, Article 5 states that “State has the responsibility to assure the safety, well-being, and development of any child placed in alternative care, as well as the regular examination of the appropriateness of the care arrangement given”. In India, Article 39(f) of the Indian Constitution states that “the state should ensure that children have the opportunity and resources they need to grow up healthy in a dignified manner in order to ensure that childhood and adolescence are protected against exploitation as well as moral and material abandonment.” Making India Inclusive for Orphans - A Way Forward Need for a Separate Legislation In India, there is no separate legislation dealing with Orphans. Orphans and vulnerable groups are included under the Juvenile Justice Act. Fatalism and institutional neglect have resulted in them becoming dispersed political entities incapable of fighting for the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution. According to the concept of Parens Patriae, the State is your parent if you have none. This statement is truer for no other category of citizens but orphans. Therefore, the Government should introduce legislation made exclusively for the Orphans to ensure that they are provided with their fundamental right to life, as guaranteed under our Constitution. In 2016, The Orphan Child (Provision of Social Security) Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha. However, it never saw any light of the day. It is high time to pass the bill to formulate comprehensive legislation covering the needs of orphans. Formulation of Policies Favouring Orphans Apart from enacting separate legislation on this issue, the State shall make such policies that support the Orphans. The policy may provide for the following: Recreational activities and innovations enhance the participation of children [orphans] and make sure that these children are provided leisure time. Placing Orphans in a family setting through reunion or adoption and creating an effective system of institutional care for the Orphans. Catering to the psychological needs of these children by way of counselling, training and capacity building. Post-institutional support to ensure education, skill training and livelihood to orphan children after they turn. Raising public awareness about orphans and other vulnerable children through speaking to children, parents, caregivers, service providers, and the general public. Mechanism to Control the Orphanages Section 41(1) of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 makes it mandatory for all the institutions for housing for Orphans to be registered under the Act. However, contrary to this, it has been found in a survey carried out by the Ministry of Women and Child Development that 4,000 of the total 9,000 child-care institutions were not registered under the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015, and were operating illegally. "Covid orphans " posed a unique challenge to the State and society in the aftermath of second covid waves. While the Government of India has announced creating a corpus fund to take care of such children, challenges remain. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a reliable mechanism to be put in place that can control orphanages. Furthermore, the Child Adoption Resource Agency (CARA) should play an active role in regulating in-country and inter-country adoptions. Introduction of Uniform Civil Code Adoption is a significant part of an Orphan’s life. However, adoption falls in the subject matter of Personal Laws. Since there is no uniform civil code in India for Personal Laws, there is a visible lack of uniformity in applying such laws across the country. Most of the time, religion poses a barrier for the parents to adopt a child. Even if adoption occurs, the parents are not legally allowed to call themselves the adopted child’s parents. Time and again, the Hon'ble Supreme Court has shown full support for introducing a Uniform Civil Code in the existing Personal Laws. In Mohammad Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum, Justice Y.V. Chandrachud observed that “A uniform civil code will aid in national unification by reducing divergent legal loyalties based on opposing ideologies”. Therefore, introducing a Uniform Civil Code will lead to the application of the same law for all the citizens in India, which will further ensure that there is no single childless parent in the country. Conclusion Summing up, the difficulties that the Orphans face are diverse and complex. In India, there is currently no legislation that specifically deals with the special portion of our population. While we have laws that penalise children, there is no contrary law that protects them. It is, therefore, the need of the hour to come up with policies and legislations that protect and empower these children and provide them with the love and warmth that they deserve. * 3rd Year, B. Com., LL.B. (Hons.) student at Institute of Law, Nirma University, Ahmedabad ** 3rd Year, B.A., LL.B. (Hons.) student at Chanakya National Law University, Patna (Disclaimer- The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Child Rights Centre.)

  • Rethinking Reliability of Social Investigation Reports in Cases of Juvenile Delinquency

    By Sarah Azad, 1st Year, B.A., LL.B. (Hons.) student at NMIMS School of Law, Bangalore INTRODUCTION The rate of violent crimes committed by youngsters under the age of 16 has risen in recent years. The incident of the "Nirbhaya Delhi Gang Rape Case", which occurred on December 16, 2012, has shaken not just Indiarather the entire world. In that case, also the crucial point was the participation of the defendant, who was only six months away from turning 18 years old. Statistics show that juvenile crimes are increasing at alarming rates. According to 2017 data produced by the National Crime Records Bureau, over 40,000 juveniles are caught per day, the majority of them are in the 16-18 age group. However, recently, the Punjab and Haryana High Court has ruled in Vishwas Bhandari vs The State Of Punjab that the judgment to issue or deny bail to juveniles delinquents should depend on the results of a social investigation. Against this backdrop, the present piece of writing is an analysing of the merits and issues with the social investigation reports that are used to decide whether or not to grant bail to juvenile offenders and provide suggestions for their effective usage as well. WHAT IS A SOCIAL INVESTIGATION REPORT? Everything an individual indulges in has a basis in a series of circumstances that led him to do what he did. The focus of the social investigation report is to identify and understand the circumstances of the child in question, and what may have led to the alleged crime. Social Investigation Reports (SIR) come into the picture in "Section 12 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000" which talks about bail granting systems in a juvenile delinquency case. The social inquiry and report are still regarded as a sine qua non[1]in deciding juvenile cases. BACKGROUND Despite any earlier specific record, the Social Investigation report was first used in Rural England in the 1870s. The first-ever juvenile court was set up in Calcutta in 1914 and since then there is no going back. The Juvenile Justice Act was introduced in the year 2000 and that is where the use of social investigation reports under Section 12 of the Act began. The court's use of social investigations findings in resolution judgments and, in certain situations, adjudicated proceedings is a distinctive input that has resulted from such a socio-legal unity. The utilisation of SIR to identify the requirements of each particular child has been envisioned as the mainspring of a juvenile process ever since initial periods of courts determining juvenile cases. COMPONENTS OF A SOCIAL INVESTIGATION REPORT The SIR has details regarding children who conflict with law related to their upbringing, circumstances and physical, economic and social surroundings. Ordinarily, the report is divided into three main parts the first part deals with information related to the child's family background and his/her relations with parents, relatives, peers and teachers. The second part entails details regarding the child's physical and mental health and conditions, interests, habits, personality and behavioural traits. The third part is where the Probation Officer analyses the circumstances of the child and related it to the present act of delinquency thus establishing a link between the two. RELATED CASE LAWS In Sonu (Minor)VsState of UP[2], the Appellate Court examined the social investigations document and concluded that the revisionist should not be granted bail, but the High Court of Allahabad was in plain disagreement with the interpretation of the social investigation report to reach this conclusion. In Dharmrajvsthe State of UP[3], where Dharamraj was accused of threatening a girl for marrying her by force, the court had held based on the social investigation report, that releasing him will expose him to psychological and moral dangers. It will also be concluded through the report that he is likely to come in close contact with other criminals and that his release's purpose would stand of no use. In Vishnuvsthe State of Haryana[4]the child who conflicts with the law is also the petitioner and relied on VishwasBhandarivsThe State Of Punjab[5]and contended that the courts in his case didn't consider social investigation reports. The court considered this and went ahead with evaluating his social investigation report which concluded that his relations with his parents and peer were cordial, and was a normal child and committed the alleged crime under the influence of peer group pressures. MERITS OF SOCIAL INVESTIGATION REPORTS When it comes to the use of social investigation reports in adjudication, the reasons for conducting a social investigation upon submitting a petition and for the judge consulting the report before adjudication are based on sociological issues rather than law protecting individual rights. The fundamental point is that the material in the social report adds greatly to the judge's comprehension of the juvenile's overall personality and specific needs—information that might not be easily available during the hearing. The report allows the judge to evaluate whether it is appropriate to keep a child detained until the hearing. Other arguments in favour of the procedure include the fact that it sometimes removes the need for the child to appear in court, protects parents from losing money, and, in general, best serves the child's and state's interests.[6] CHALLENGES WITH APPLICATION OF SOCIAL INVESTIGATION REPORTS A lot of things can be blamed for the intense debate this topic has sparked. Firstly, the tension among individuals that see the juvenile court as just an authoritative legalistic institution and others who see it as a liberal societal kind of organisation is exemplified by the issue of correct utilization of such findings. Secondly, because it is simultaneously an authorized judicial document and a medical systematic review, the document raises unique challenges. Privacy and disclosure is an issue[7]. Thirdly, the document often includes material that could be a significant cause of prejudice for the youngster and his family. Other institutions' interests in using such data, such as governmental organizations as well as private clinics, and the juvenile court's interests in protecting the child's anonymity, occasionally collide. Information that is presented at the court through a social investigation report cannot be trusted upon in its entirety since it is coloured with biases and subjective interpretations of those involved in giving out information about the child often creep in. Evidence that has not been exposed to the legal standards offered by evidentiary safeguards should not be used in a delinquency determination. Most of the juvenile's social background is dependent on information gathered from neighbours that may have an antagonistic or unfavourable mindset toward the youngster and who are more likely to make a prejudiced and misleading remark than to appear in court under oath. Furthermore, due to the large caseload and limited amount of time for full research, the report may appear to contain inaccuracies, bias, cursory assessment, and rank hearsay.[8] ENVISAGING AN APPROPRIATE ADMINISTRATION OF SOCIAL INVESTIGATION REPORTS In the light of the above-mentioned arguments it can be concluded, that while tackling the issue of juvenile delinquency is the urgent need of the hour, so is the proper administration of tools and mechanisms put in place in the juvenile justice system. One such tool is the social investigation report. While social investigation reports serve a considerably great purpose in deciding the bail appeals, it has certain problem areas that we possibly cannot shut our eyes to. A suggestive series of reforms could be that in cases apart from a judicial matter, caution should be exercised to avoid disclosing the information to people or entities who are not committed to the child's safety. Although no law can completely abolish the prospect of mismanagement, formal behaviour that may result in child stigmatisation can be efficiently prevented by enacting particular and indisputable regulations that plausibly consider the genuine preferences of people and departments dealing with the children's wellbeing. It must be assured that certain documents or data are not publicised or utilised for any reason except those for which they were acquired. Since the social investigation reports are inclined towards subjective bearings, its use could be minimised or be limited to circumstance specific cases- where the need be and not be blindly invoked in all juvenile delinquency cases. A well-postulated system of juvenile justice with all its mechanisms placed right as per ideals of law would take us forward on the path of growth in the child rights arena. References [1]Without which, not – something of absolute necessary [2]Criminal Appeal No. 1775 of 2013 | 05-02-201 [3]CRIMINAL REVISION No. - 1857 of 2017 [4]CRR-233 of 2021 (O & M) [5]CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 105 OF 2021 [6]Teitelbaum, L., 1967. The Use of Social Reports in Juvenile Court Adjudications. J. Fam. L., 7, p.425. [7][7]Columbia Law Review, 1958. Employment of Social Investigation Reports in Criminal and Juvenile Proceedings. 58(5), p.702. [8]Xiong, Y.A.N.G., 2008. On the System of Social Investigation in Juvenile Proceedings [J].In Legal Forum (Vol. 1). (Disclaimer- The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Child Rights Centre.)

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  • Publications

    Reports & Publications NEWSLETTERS ​ January-March, 2021 [Issue-V] Annual Issue 2020 ​ ​Inaugural Issue/March 2019 REPORTS PROGRAMME REPORT (English Version): From Advocacy to Action – Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) Unite for Child Rights Organised by Child Rights Centre, Chanakya National Law University, Patna & UNICEF Bihar on March 10, 2021 PROGRAMME REPORT (Hindi Version): From Advocacy to Action – Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) Unite for Child Rights Organised by Child Rights Centre, Chanakya National Law University, Patna & UNICEF Bihar on March 10, 2021 PROGRAMME REPORT: From Advocacy to Action - Youth Unite for Child Rights - Online orientation By Child Rights Centre, CNLU & UNICEF Bihar on 26 February, 2021 MEDIA COVERAGE REPORT: Webinar ‘From Advocacy to Action — Youth Unite for Child Rights’ , 26 February, 2021 Annual Report - 2018-2019 Annual Issue 2020 March Issue 2019 Jan-March 2021

  • Careers - CRC | CNLU Patna

    Career Opportunity & Experience @ CRC Student Internship Programme @ CRC ​ BACKGROUND The Child Rights Centre (CRC) is a specialised research centre of the Chanakya National Law University, Patna, which is running in assistance with UNICEF since November 2018. The Centre's mission is to engage with child rights from a multi-disciplinary perspective and provide integrated technical support to different layers of institutional governance at local, state and national levels to protect child rights through Knowledge Management, Human Resource Development and System Strengthening. To this end, the Centre facilitate research support to different stakeholders involved in the child rights paradigm. In addition, it seeks to aid institutionalisation of best practices through research, collaboration, training, review, policy suggestions, field research, improving thereby, and access to justice for children and promoting research, advanced learning and advocacy and community action to strengthen child rights laws, policies and practices in Bihar and India. GOAL The goal of the CRC Student Internship Program is to supplement the CRC, CNLU mission of furthering the professional growth of those engaged in the protection of Child Rights in various fields. PURPOSE The purpose of the Child Rights Centre Student Internship Program is to provide students with an opportunity to gain workplace skills and learn more about the rights of the children. This is also an opportunity for Child Rights Centre to contribute to the local community by distributing education about children's rights. ​ INTERNSHIP REQUIREMENTS Students must meet the following requirements: ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ DOWNLOAD CRC SIP RULES HERE . Contact For more details, keep visiting our website or email to . Select Position Internship arrow&v Submit Thanks for submitting! We'll be in touch with you shortly.

  • Home - CRC | CNLU Patna

    Our Events What's New “URJAA” - “Unlock Your Creativity, Utilize Your Potential”: Submit by 15th August, 11:59PM,Extended! Jul 28, 2020 Guest Lecture: “Impact of COVID-19 on Learning and Well-being of Children” [20th July, 2021] Jul 15 Panel Discussion on Legal, Social & Medical Aspects of Vaccine Hesitancy in COVID-19 Pandemic Jun 17 View All Our Team @ CRC Hon'ble Justice Mrs. Mridula Mishra Vice-chancellor, Chanakya National Law University, Patna Mr. Manoranjan Prasad Srivastava Registrar, Chanakya National Law University, Patna Dr. Aman Kumar Centre Coordinator, Child Rights Centre, CNLU View Team INTERNS TESTIMONIALS “This is my first internship and I have never experience anything like it. This internship in the Child Rights Center has been a wonderful experience. I got to research and learn about the child education system in Bihar, I got to understand the different types of crimes against children in Bihar, I got to research and learn about gender-based violence in the state of Bihar. All of these have motivated me to work on the same matters and problems in my state, which is one of the things I never thought I would do. I got to read a lot of newspaper which I never did before and It has grown on me. Child Right Center has been wonderful and they gave me this opportunity and guided me to achieve my research and help me understand different social problems. I can’t thank CRC enough. Thank you, CRC, for this wonderful opportunity!” — ANKUR DATTA, Bennett University, Greater Noida, Blog Posts 4 days ago 7 min Legal Rights of Orphan Children in India By Pritha Lahiri (Institute of Law Nirma University, Ahmedabad) & Ayush Kumar (Chanakya National Law University, Patna). 53 5 days ago 6 min Rethinking Reliability of Social Investigation Reports in Cases of Juvenile Delinquency By Sarah Azad, 1st Year, B.A., LL.B. (Hons.) student at NMIMS School of Law, Bangalore. The focus of the social investigation report is to i 46 Jul 15 6 min Legal Rights of Orphan Children in India By Ranjul Malik, 1st Year, B.A., LL.B. student at Army Institute of Law, Mohali CONTEXTUAL BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION While everybody... 76 Mar 28 6 min ROLE OF JUDICIARY IN PROTECTING CHILD RIGHTS Nikhil Singh and Vineet Tripathi, 4th Year, Amity University Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Campus The role of Justice in India and the scope of... 171 Mar 28 6 min THE STATE OF INSTITUTIONAL TREATMENT OF CHILDREN IN CONFLICT WITH LAW IN INDIA: WHAT IT IS AND WHAT Tanisha Prashant, 4th Year, Institute of Law, Nirma University We are guilty of many errors and faults; But our worst crime is abandoning... 48 Mar 28 6 min CHILD MARRIAGE: SOCIETAL CHALLENGES FOR THE LEGAL REGIME Abhishek Burman, 2nd Year, Maharashtra National Law University, Nagpur and Shriya Tiwari, 2nd Year, Hidayatullah National Law University,... 171 1 2 3 4 5 Read All Posts

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